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Book and Author Information

Dr. Lawrence's initial research was to quantify businesses as urban cultural icons. She then identified the six dimensions while she was formatting Guttman scale to measure brick and mortar businesses as urban cultural icons. Dr. Lawrence's research of businesses as urban cultural icons uses all six dimensions with:
  • Time measured as years a business was open.
  • Transactions measured as verbal, countertop, or conveyor belt.
  • Entity is the type of business using Sarlo's (1992, 2001, 2006a, 2006b) categorizing of human needs.
  • Place measured using DeMers (2002) and Lo and Yeung (2002) GIS terminology plus cell division.
  • Constants were: Theming and Product Line Extension.
  • Human was measured as level of vice being sold.
Cases range from old to new, single-store to multi-national businesses. Secondary testing supports the dimensions are not overlapping. The oldest currently-viable business is Tehran's Grand Bazaar which opened in approximately 1600 BCE. Foss Drugs is a single-store location, and Chevrolet is a multi-national business.

Additional Information

Book Corrections & Updates, Research Theories and Methods, Business Cases, and References

Book Corrections & Updates

Many versions of the book such as hardback, paperback, and ebook are en process with the first book version being paperback. Ebook is under revision and will come out as Second Edition.   

Paperback version of Our Six Dimensions can be purchased from Amazon. Dr. Lawrence is converting Our Six Dimensions into Ebook format and charts plus figures in the manuscript are making Ebook conversion a real test to overcome. When new book versions become available updates will be posted and information sent through newsletter.

Typographical errors in the References section have been corrected on the website section. 

Research Topics Discussed

Dr. Lawrence did not anticipate her measuring of businesses as urban cultural icons to expand into identifying and testing six dimensions, plus formatting templates sequencing the dimensions. There are 143 references and since all 347 research cases for the six dimensions contained Human and Entity, with Time, Transactions, Place, and Constants as candidates for inclusion Dr. Lawrence is hesitant to suggest inclusion of more references to support the six dimensions.  Heh, heh, heh. Except for one reference Dr. Lawrence forgot to list. Roger Fout and Stephen Mill's (1998) Next of Kin: My Conversations with Chimpanzees. The distinguishing characteristic of humans is their inter-generational transfer of language, especially written language. That ability allows for the inclusion of authors within the data set plus allows us to read written work from hundreds of years ago.

Our Six Dimensions references many theories, theorists, and authors, uses statistics for data analysis, plus research papers and businesses as a data set. For additional information or to brush up on some topic many websites are listed below. These websites and businesses are not endorsed nor are they endorsing Our Six Dimensions, plus these non-exclusive websites are examples of many websites available for perspective review.

Research Methods

Research Methods

Because the two research topics of six dimensions plus businesses as urban cultural icons are intertwined in Our Six Dimensions, various research methods are used. In order to generalize findings for the six dimensions research to the greater population a sample size of 350 cases is used to test the six dimensions. Mathematical rounding error decreased sample size to 347 cases. All cases support the six dimensions, four cases (1.1%) support Einstein's method. For businesses as urban cultural icons, a Guttman scale is formatted by measuring and summing the dimensions to format Globalization Index Scores. Factor Analysis was also performed. Listed below are some examples of research methods.
For additional research methods or in-depth discussions, talk with your favorite academic/ researcher.

The Urban Side of Things

Business Cases Used in Measuring Businesses as Urban Cultural Icons

The data set used in measuring businesses as urban cultural icons included 58 businesses. Listed below are links of some business cases: Morning CallBrocato'sDorignac's GroceryJudice InnPJ's CoffeeNisiyama Onsen Keinunkan HotelBingley ArmsBrookville HotelCheever's CafeBud's BroilersIrma HotelTaco CabanaKing Sooper's GroceryAlbertson'sWhataBurgerCafe du MondeCVS PharmacySonic Drive InDillard's Department StoreWalgreen'sTaco BellBaskin RobbinsLa Quinta InnsSuper CutsHome DepotWhole FoodsMarriott HotelsApplebee'sMcDonald'sBurger KingWal-MartCinemark Theaters, and Starbucks.



References for Our Six Dimensions include journal articles, books, and news articles, combined with YouTubes and authorship references. Not all references have direct websites to access the material for free, so either references are linked to their website or a website listing their journal publication or book for sale. From there one can use book information to request the published material via public library, most likely journal publications will require a fee. Another route to pursue would be enrolling in college then using one's library access for journal publications or books. Use your discretion if websites seem sketchy, then request from interlibrary loan.

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Dr. Stephanie Lawrence

About Dr. Lawrence

Dr. Stephanie Lawrence is the Subject Matter Expert on the Six Dimensions. Her background is BS and MA in Sociology plus PhD in Urban Studies. She has published and presented research and theories at conferences, workshops and lectures.

Book Signings, Readings & Public Appearances

Updates on book signings, readings, interviews and speaking engagements will be posted and sent through newsletter.

My background is sociology and urban studies. I was a PhD candidate beginning to format my research to measure businesses as urban cultural icons and Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans. Around that time I saw the dimensions for the first time and I stared in dis-belief. We had evacuated to Tomball TX and returned home on weekends to remove damaged carpeting, flooring, appliances, and drywall. Our house damage was nothing compared to New Orleans metropolitan service area damage. 

When I saw the damage to New Orleans, I expanded my research focus from New Orleans brick and mortar businesses to include U.S.-based brick and mortar businesses. I received my PhD and set about figuring out the research methods to use to test for the six dimensions. I also saw my U.S.-based dissertation data set was limited to businesses started in 1776 and later. So I expanding my urban icons data set to include older international cases. The six dimensions plus expanded urban data set are supported and I continue to be amazed with the dimensions. 

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